Kaspil: Filipino Pride Galore

August 27, 2008

Rizal’s Retraction Controversy

Filed under: Kaspil1, Module4 — Tags: , , — kaspil1 @ 1:45 pm

Ito ang documentong nagsasabing si Rizal ay bumalik sa simbahan at binabawi niyang ang kanyang mga sinabi tungkol sa simbahan at sa mga pari. Mayroong higit kumulang na apat na bersyon ito. Ang isa ay inilabas noong araw ng pagpatay kay Rizal , Dec 30, 1896, ng La Voz Española at Diaro de Manila. Ang ‘orginal text’ ay natagpuan sa archdiocesan archives noong May 18, 1935. Ang isang bersyo naman ay galling kay Fr. Balaguer na ayon sa kanya ay nakatanggap siya ng eksaktong kopya na may pirma ni Rizal. Ang pang-apat ay nakita noong Feb 14, 1897 sa Barcelona, Spain.

Madaming ang bersyon ng retraction ni Rizal ngunit ang mga nilalaman nila mayroon malaking pagkakaiba katulad nalang ni dalawang bersyon na ito. Ito ang bersyon ng La Voz Española at kay Fr. Balaguer.

La Voz Española(“original copy”), December 30, 1896

Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir.

Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mis cualidades de hijo de la Iglesia Catolica. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me somento a cuanto ella manda. Abomino de la Masonaria, como enigma que es de la Iglesia y como sociedad prohibida por la Iglesia. Puede el Prelado Diocesano, como autoridad superior eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen.

Manila, 29 de Diciembre de

1896-Jose Rizal

Jefe del Piquete
Juan del Fresno

Ayudante de Plaza
Eloy Moure

Bersyon ni Fr. Balaguer, January 1897

Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir. Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mi calidad de hijo de la Iglesia. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me somento a cuanto Ella manda. Abomino de la Masonaria, como enigma que es de la Iglesia, y como Sociedad prohibida por la misma Iglesia.

Puede el Prelado diocesano, como Autoridad superior eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea mia, para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar, y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen.

Manila, 29 de Diciembre de

1896-Jose Rizal

Kung susuirin makikita ang mga pagkakaiba nila

  • Sa “original copy” ang saliatang mis cualidades at sa kopya ni Fr. Balaguer mi calidad.
  • Mayroong Catholica pagkatapos ng unang Iglesia sa “original copy”.
  • Sa kopya ni Fr. Balaguer may salitang misma bago sa pangatlong Iglesias na wala naman sa “original copy”.
  • Sa kopya ni Fr. Balaguer di nagsisimula ang pangalawang paragraph bago sa panglimang pangungusap.
  • Sa “original copy” naman ay nagsimula ang pangalawang paragraph pagkatapos ng pangalawang pangungusap.
  • Sa “original copy” mayroong lamang na 4 na comma ngunit sa kopya ni Fr. Balaguer may 11.
  • Magkaiba ang mga saksi sa parehang kopya.

Nasabi rin ni Fr. Balaguer na may natanggap siya ng dalawang bersyon galing kay Fr. Pi at ang “exact copy” na gawa at may pirma ni Rizal sa arpobispo. Hindi rin sigurado si Fr. Balaguer kung si Rizal nga ang nagsulat at nagpirma. Nasabi ring “exact copy” lang ang natanggap niya, hindi ito ang orihinal dahil kopya lamang ito.

Mayroon din nagsasabi na dati pang nagretract si Rizal upang makasalan si Josephine Bracken. Ngunit walang ebidensya na talagang nagpakasal silang dalawang kasi wala silang marriage contract.

Kung totoo man ito o gawa gawa lang nga mga friars, mayroon motibo ang mga friars na ibalita ito sa mga Pilipino. Una para pagdudahan si Rizal sa mga kanyang ginawa dahil anong klaseng bayani ka kung sa dulo ay babawiin mo lang ang lahat ng iyong sinabi at nagawa. Ginawa rin ito upang mawalang ng motibasyon ang mga Pilipino para lumaban dahil wala na silang iniidolo at upang matigal ang rebolusyon.

- Hennessy Precillas

RA 1425: A Refresher

Filed under: Kaspil1, Module1 — Tags: , , , — kaspil1 @ 12:28 pm

Maraming mga tao ang nkarinig na ng Republic Act 1425 o mas kinikilalang Batas Rizal, ngunit, alam nga ba talaga natin kung ano nilalaman nito? Ano ang mga pinagdaan ng mga tao para lang maipatupad ang batas na ito? Sa pagbabasa ng blog na ito, masmaiintindihan natin ang tungkol sa bats na ito at paano ito nipatupad. Dito rin masasagot ang mga taonong kung ano nga ba ang kahalagahan ng batas na ito sa atin at kung anu ano ang mga argyumento sa batas na ito.

Ang unang unang tanong na dapat natin maisagot ay kung ano nga ba talaga ang mga nilalaman ng batas na ito. Sa sobrang haba ng nilalaman ng batas na ito, maari natin itong isummaraze ng isang maikling talata. Ang Republic Act No. 1425, mas kilala bilang Rizal Law o Batas Rizal, ay inaprubahan noong ika-12 ng Hunyo 1956 noong ito ay tinatawag pang House Bill No. 5561 at Senate Bill No. 438. Ito ay nagsasalaysay ng pagsasama sa kurikulum ng lahat ng paaralang pampubliko, pribado, kolehiyo at mga unibersidad ang kurso tungkol sa buhay, mga ginawa at sinulat ni Jose Rizal, lalo na ang kanyang mga nobelang “Noli Me Tangere” at “El Filibusterismo”, na pinapahanitulutan ang pagpapalimbag at pamamahagi ng mga nabanggit sa itaas at para sa iba pang layunin. Ang mga may “exception” sa batas na ito ay ang pagbasa lamang ng “abridged version” ng mga nobelang ito ng  mga dayuhan na nag aaral sa bansa. Kung ikaw ay isang Pilipino, kinakailangan mong pagaralan ang buong bersyon ng mga nobelang ito.

Upang masmaintindihan ang kahalagahan ng batan na ito, kailangan rin nating malaman kung anu ano ang mga layunin ng batas na ito kaya ito naipatupad. Ito lamang ang iba sa mga layunin ng batas na ito:

- Nilalayon ng R.A. na ito na maging inspirasyon ng mga taong bayan, lalo na ng mga kabataang Pilipino ang naging buhay, at karanasan ni Rizal noong panahon ng Kastila.

- Ang batas ay naghahangad na magkaroon ang mga Pilipino ng kanilang sariling simulain ng kalayaan at pagiging nasyonalismo na binigyang halaga ng ating mga bayani.

-  Nilalayon nitong muling gisingin ang damdaming makabayan ng bawat mamamayang Pilipino upang maipamana at maisaalaala ng mga kabataan ng susunod na henereasyon.

- Nilalayon din nitong mabigyang parangal ang pambansang bayani, na si Dr. Jose Rizal at ipaalala sa bawat Pilipino ang kanyang naging malaking bahagi sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas sa pamamagitan ng kanyang mga ginawa para sa bayan. Ang kanyang buhay, mga ginawa, at mga sinulat, tulad ng “Noli Me Tangere” at “El Filibusterismo”, ay magsisilbing inspirasyon sa kaisipan ng bawat pilipino upang magkakaroon ng pagmamahal sa bayan.

Noong hindi pa batas ng RA 1425, maraming mga kontrobersya na lumibot sa isyung ito. Naglaban dito ang iba’t ibang mga kilalalang mga tauhan sa panahong ito kung kaya’t naging mainit ang pagdedbatehan ng batas na ito. Ilan lang ang mga sumunod sa mmga sumuporta at tumanggi sa RA 1425.

PRO:

- Claro M. Recto: Pinaglaban niya upang maipatupad ang bill.

- Jose P. Laurel: Kasama ni Recto na ipinaglaban ang batas upang maipatubad ito.

- Emilio Aguinaldo: Kasama ni Recto at Laurel na ipinaglaban ang batas upang maipatubad ito.

- The Spirit of 1896, Alagad Ni Rizal, Freemasons, Booklovers Society, Philippine Public Scool Teachers Association: mga organisasyong sumuporta kanina Recto at Laurel upang maipatupad ang batas.

- Fidel V. Ramos: Memorandum niya – mas pinapatibay ang pagpapatupad sa RA1425.

CON:

- Archbishop Santos, Sen Tanada, Quitin Paredes, Sen. Rodrigo, Sen. Rosales: Ayaw ng simbahan na gawin required na reading materials ang Noli Me Tangere at El Filibusterismo ni Rizal dahil anti-churh ang mga nilalaman nito. Hindi rin nitatanggap ng simbahan na pwedeng gawing inspiration ng mga kabataan ang mga libro. Kapag binasa ng Catholic ang isang uncensored version, siya ay papatawan ng heresy.

Ngayon ay alam  natin ang tungkol sa batas Rizal, sa pagaaral nito, may mga nakuha akong mga input na puwede nating idagdag o ibago sa batas na ito. Ang “exemption” sa R.A. 1425 ay maaring tanggalin sa kadahilanang, wala namang masamang epekto ang mga sulatin ni Rizal sa pananampalataya ng tao. O kung hindi man tanggalin, huwag nang ipakuha sa mga Pilipinong estudyanteng “foreigners” ang mismong kurso at sa halip ay papiliin sila ng alternatibong klase. Ito ay dahil hindi natin dapat pilitin sa kanila kung ang mga paniniwala nila ay iba dahil lang nag-aral sila sa Pilipinas. Isa rin sa mga dahilan ay dahil pwede silang pumili ng klase, kung gugustuhin nila, puwede pa rin nila kunin ang klaseng ito kung ginugusto nila.

Kapag pinagisipan natin ng mabuti ang batas na ito, masmaraming mga masmagagandang epekto sa bansa natin kapag patuloy natin ipatupad ang batas na ito. Pagisipan mo, kung mawala ang batas na ito, iilan lang ito sa mga maaaring mangyari sa bansa natin. Ang maaring unang resulta ay ang pagkawala ng trabaho ng mga guro sa mga Pilipinong kurso. Ikalawa, maaring tuluyan ng makalimutan ng mga Pilipino ang kabayanihan at mga aral ni Rizal. Ikatlo, maaring lubusang bumaba ang nasyonalismo ng mga Pilipino. Base lang dito, nakikita na natin na masmaganda kung patuloy na ipatupad natin ang batas na ito.

Sa aking palagay at base na rin sa napagkunan ko ng impormasyon, hindi na ito dapat pag-aralan, dahil hindi na ito gaanong tinatangkilik ng mga mag-aaral ngayon lalo na iyong mga mag-aaral sa kolehiyo. Lagi nilang inuusisa kung ano nga ba ang halaga ng pag-aaral ng buhay ni Rizal at ng kanyang mga nagawa sa kani-kanilang napiling larangan. Sinasabi nila na ito ay pag-aaksaya lamang ng oras at pera. Ngunit sa kabilang banda, nararapat nga lang naman na ating gunitain at pag-aralan ang kagitingan ng ating pambansang bayani. Hindi natin dapat kaligtaan ang nagawa nyang kabutihan sa bayan – napalaya niya tayo sa mga manunupil. Kailangan pa rin talagang pag-aralan dahil bahagi na ito ng ating kasaysayan. Nagpapatunay na kailangan pa rin natin itong pag-aralan dahil ito ay kabilang sa mga batas na ipinatupad; layunin ng batas na ito na dapat lahat ng mga eskuwelahan sa buong pilipinas ay mayroong mga libro at mga nagawa ni Rizal. Dapat natin siyang gawing simbolo ng ating kalayaan. Ang pag-aaral sa kanya ay para na ring pagpapasalamat sa nagawa niyang kabutihan.

- Mac Pascual

Panahong Prehistorikal at Prekolonyal

Filed under: Kaspil1, Module2 — Tags: , , , , — kaspil1 @ 10:34 am

Wave of Migration theory

Ang Wave of Migration theory ay ang teoryang tungkol sa mga sinaunang tao sa Pilipinas na pinaniniwalaan ng karamihan. Isinasaad ng teoryang binuo ni Henry Otley Beyer na may iba’t ibang grupo o uri ng tao na nag-migrate sa Pilipinas, at sila ang mga kauna-unahang nanirahan sa bansa.

Kabuuan ng Teorya

Ayon kay Beyer, sunod-sunod na dumating sa Pilipinas ang mga grupo ng tao, na maihahalintulad sa mga alon o waves na sabay-sabay ang pagbugso; ito ang dahilan kung bakit tinawag ang teorya na Wave of Migration. Nakarating sila sa bansa gamit ang paglalakad sa tulay na lupa na nagkokonekta sa iba’t ibang mga bansa noon at paglalayag sa karagatan. Dagdag pa dito, isinaad din na ang mga grupong ito ang unang nanirahan sa bansa – wala pang tao bago ang kanilang pagdating. Sa kanila din nanggaling ang mga kultura at paraan ng pamumuhay na tinatamasa natin hanggang sa kasalukuyan.

Mga Grupo ng Tao

Hinati ni Beyer sa pito ang grupo ng mga taong namuhay sa Pilipinas:

(1) Primitive Man – kahalintulad ng Java Man

(2) Negritos – kilala din bilang mga aeta; inilarawan sila bilang mga maliliit at maiitim na nilalang, pango ang ilong at kulot ang buhok.

(1) Indonesian A – nagmula sa Timog-Silangang Asya; mga matatangkad at mapuputing nilalang na makitid ang mukha at matangos ang ilong.

(2) Indonesian B – nanggaling sa Indo-Tsina; kumpara sa unang pangkat, sila ay malalaki at maiitim, malalapad ang mukha at malaki ang ilong.

(3) Mga taong mula sa Central Asya

(4) Malays ang pinanggalingan ng lahi at kabihasnan ng mga Pilipino

(1) Mga taong dumating noong panahon ng Kristyanismo


Argumento Laban Sa Teorya

Pagkatapos ng madaming taon ng pag-aaral at argumento ukol sa nakasaad sa Wave of Migration theory, masasabing walang katototohanan ang kabuuan ng dokumentong ito. Una sa lahat, walang natagpuang mga buto o kahit anong materyal na ebidensiya; kung meron man, hindi naman makikita at madedetermina mula sa mga ito ang pisikal na anyo o katangian ng isang tao. Higit pa, hindi maaaring ibatay sa pisikal na katangian ang mga kultural na aspeto – ito ay nabubuo mula sa pamumuhay ng mga nilalang at ang mga reaksyon nila sa mga kaganapan sa kanilang paligid. Wala itong koneksyon sa pisikal na aspeto. Nasabi din na lahat ng ating kultura at paraan ng pamumuhay ay nagmula sa mga dayuhang ito; ibig bang sabihin nito ay walang sariling kabihasnan ang ating sarling mga ninuno? Hindi, dahil bago pa sa naihalong kultura ng mga Espanyol, Amerikano, at Hapon, nakapagtayo na ang mga sinaunang Pilipino ng kanilang sariling maayos at maunlad na pamumuhay.

Ang Katotohanan

Ang mga sinaunang tao sa Pilipinas ay ang Tabon Man at ang Cagayan Man. Ayon sa pag-aaral, nabuhay ang Tabon Man sa pagitan ng 24,000 hanggang 22,000 BCE. Bilang ebidensya, natagpuan ni Dr. Robert Fox ang skull cap at jaw fragments nito sa Tabon Cave sa Palawan noong 1962 – 1966. Sa kasalukuyan, wala pang natatagpuang mga buto ng Cagayan Man, pero pinaniwalaan ang pagkabuhay nito mula sa mga nahanap na stone tools at fossil remains ng mga hayop sa Cagayan Valley.

Reflection

Sa pag-aaral ng Module 2, nabigla ako nang malaman kong walang katotohanan ang Wave of Migration theory, dahil simula noong ako’y nasa elementary pa ay ito na ang itinuro at itinatak sa aking isipan na pinanggalingan ng lahing Pilipino. Dahil dito, naengganyo akong malaman ang tunay na teorya at pati na din ang malaman ang mga dahilan kung bakit mali ang Wave of Migration theory. Tunay na natuwa at marami akong natutunan, maraming maling kaisipan na nai-tama, at napaisip ng husto sa mga bagong impormasyon at katotohanan na aking nalaman.

- Gena Esperanza

August 26, 2008

Sa Kamay ng Espanya at Nasyonalismong Pilipino

Filed under: Kaspil1, Module3 — Tags: , , , — kaspil1 @ 3:26 pm

Noong taong 1521, si Ferdinand Magellan, isang manlalakabay na Portuguese , ay nakarating sa Samar. Pinangalanan niya ang lugar bilang Islas de San Lazaro. Nakipag-kaibigan si Magellan kay Humabon, ang hari ng Cebu, at dahil dito, marami ang nabinyagan bilang Katoliko. Si Lapu-lapu, ang hari ng Mactan noong panahon na iyon ay tutol kay Magellan. Naganap ang Battle of Mactan noong April 27, 1521 at dito napatay si Magellan. Hindi dito nagtapos ang ekspidisyon ng Espanaya. Sumo dang ekspidisyon nila Loaisa, Cabot, Saavedra, Villalobos at Legazpi.

Sa taong 1565, sinakop ng Espanya ang arkipelago. Napilitang makipagkasundo si Tupas, anak ni Humabon, na ipasailalalim ang Pilipinas sa pamamahala ng Espanya.

Crus at espada, ito ang symbolo ng Espanya. Ginamit ng Espanya ang relihiyong Katoliko upang mas madaling mapasailalim ang taum-bayan. Sa iba naman na tutol at sumusuway pa rin sa utos ng espanya, gagamitan sila ng dahas mapasunod.

Namalagi ng 333 taon ang mga Espanyol dito sa Pilipinas at sa mga taong nandito sila, marami silang ginawang mga batas at polisiya na hindi makatarungan. Ilang halimbawa dito:

· Polo y Servicio

o Sapilitang pagtatarabaho ng mga lalaking may edad na 18-20 taon

· Bandala

o Pagkakaroon ng kota ng mga magsasaka

Ang karamihan naman sa prayle na naipadala dito sa Pilipinas ay manloloko at maaabuso. Ginagamit nila ang pananampalataya upang magkapera. Tinatakot din nila ang taum-bayan. Noong panahong iyon, napakataas ng posisyon ng prayle sa gobyerno kaya’t marami silang naipakulong at napapatay. Isa na rito ang Gomburza.

Kilala ang Gomburza bilang mga secular na pari. Ang mga secular na pari ay ang mga paring Pilipino na nagpapatakbo sa maliliit na parokya sa Pilipinas na sumasailalim sa Obispo. Noong 1774, ipinatupad ang pagbisita ng Obispo sa iba’t-ibang parokya. Ang mga regular, mga prayleng Espanyol, ay hindi sumang-ayon dito ngunit wala silang nagawa. Dahil dito, maraming regular ang napilitang umalis sa kanikanilang parokya. Ang mga secular na pari ang pumalit sa pwesto ng mga regular na prayle. Sa huli, dahil sa pagpupumilit, pagdadahilan na ang mga Pilipino ay hindi nararapat, at diskriminasyon ng mga regular na pari, naibalik sa kanila ang kanilang parokya.

Sina Father Burgos, Gomez at Zamorra ay napagbintangan na namuno sa Cavite Mutiny. Sila ay ipinapatay sa pamamagitan ng garotte noong February 17, 1872.

Ang pagpatay sa Gomburza ang sinasabing nagpausbong sa Nasyonalismo ng marami sa mga Pilipino. Ilan pa sa mga dahilan kung bakit umusbong ang nasyonalismo ng Pilipino ay ang mga sumusunod:

· Gomburza Execution

o Nagalit ang maraming Pilipino dahil sa di-makatarungnang pag-patay sa kanila. Umusbong ang Nasyonalismo dahil sag alit sa mga prayle at sa Espanya.

· British invasion of Manila

o Nang dahil sa Seven Years War, sinugod ng Britanya ang Maynila. Bumagsak sa Britanya ang Maynilang hawak ng mga Espanyol. Naisip ng mga Pilipino na kayang pabagsakin kahit na ang akalang malakas na Espanya.

· Pagbubukas ng Suez Canal

· Ilustrado Class

o Ang mga may kayang Pilipino ay nagkaroon ng pagkakataon upang mag aral sa ibang bansa. Sila ay natuto ng konsepto ng liberalismo.

· Liberal na pamumuno ni Carlos Ma. De la Torre

· Secularization Movement

o Ang mga Pilipinong pari ang mamumuno sa mga simbahan dito sa Pilipinas. Nabuhay ang nasyonalismo ng mga Pilipino dahil nalaman nilang kaya natin magsarili at magpatakbo ng sarili nating Simbahan.

· Frailocracy

o Ang mga pryleng mapangabuso ay nagkaroon ng posisyon sa gobyerno. Sa sobrang pagmamalupit nila, umusobong ang nasyonalismo ng Pilipino. Gusto nilang lahat na paalisin na ang mga ito.

Isa lang ang puno’t-dulo kung bakit umusbong ang nasyonalismong Pilipino. Ito ay dahil sa sobrang pagmamalupit at pangaabuso ng mga Espanyol. Naging dahilan ang galit at lungkot upang magkaisa ang lahat. Ang nasyonalismong ito ay may isang layunin lamang, at ito ang gawing mabuti ang kalagayan n gating bansa at ng mga taon nakatira dito.

Reflection:

Isa lang, para sa akin, ang pinupunto ng ikatlong modyul, at ito ang nasyonalismo. Iba’t-iba ang pakahulugan ng mga tao sa salitang nasyonalismo. Noon ang pakahulugan ko sa nasyonalismo ay paggawa ng mabuti para sa bayan. Ngayon ay nadagdagan pa. Ang nasyonalismo ay pagmamahal sa bansa. Hindi lang dahil sa napipilitan kang gumawa ng mabuti kaya’t gagawa ka ng mabuti. Dahil mahal mo ang iyong bansa kaya gagawa ka ng mabuti. Ito ang natutunan ko sa ikatlong modyul. Maging isang Pilipinong may nasyonalismo.

Earl Dominic P. De Vera

Rizal Law: Do we need it?

Filed under: Kaspil1, Module1 — Tags: , , , , — kaspil1 @ 12:55 pm

I would first of all, want to refresh your memory on how this law came to be and how much sacrifices were made in order to have this law implemented. The implementation of this law was not approved due to whim or without any basis on why this law should have been passed. I would like to mention some of the things that were brought up during the time when this law was being desperately passed to the Senate by Mr. Claro M. Recto. He even made very good points that could further strengthen the need of this republic act. Here are just some of the points that he brought up that solidified the necessity of this law. One is that this law would help awaken the passion that the Filipinos feel for their country and further fight for the good of the country. Another is that through the implementation of this law, our fellowmen would be able to see how much we are blinded by foreigners, especially the Americans, and how much colonial mentality has taken over the lives of the people. Still, another is that through studying the works of Rizal, Filipinos would have a sense of accomplishment and they would feel very proud of their country and their heritage, which would lead to nationalism and unification of the country.

Being a true Filipino, I am glad and proud to say that through studying the works of Rizal, my sense of nationalism was awakened and I don’t feel ashamed of my race. With this, I would like to state that I am for this particular law because of all the benefits that it can give to the country. It is also important, I believe, for a country to not forget the culture and heritage that they have through the years, but rather treasure the history of the country to help make the country better for the next generation. Rizal said that “He who does not know how to look back at where he came from will never get to his destination.” This means that as Filipinos, we should learn what really happened in the past, in the eyes of a true Filipino and not based on what the foreigners saw and experience. We should know all the facts of the past to be able to become better people and improve our flaws. He also said that “The youth is the hope of our future”. If the youth today do not understand or even know what happened in the past, how could they learn from these mistakes and make sure that these mistakes don’t happen again? “Man works for an object. Remove that object and you reduce him into inaction.” This means that if we do disregard the Rizal law, what motivation can the people have to fight for the country? How can the citizens of our country be nationalistic if we don’t know what we are fighting for and why we are fighting?

The writings, works and life of Rizal can still be applied to our lives today. Although you say that we have evolved and that we have grown, the fact of the matter is, is that no matter what time period and what situation you are in, the lessons and morals that we can learn from Rizal is universal. There will always be a Padre Damaso or Padre Salvi in our lives even if they aren’t Fryars. There will always be an Elias, who would always fight for the good of the country. These people are just symbols of what is happening everyday in our lives and that these symbolisms are timeless. This is very important not only to students but to all Filipinos, may it be a poor Filipino or the president of the country. We learn so much because of this law and it would just be a waste to remove this from our lives.

These are just some of the reasons as to why we should not remove the Rizal Law and I hope that you see the importance that this law has on our country. Keep in mind that there are more benefits of having this law that to not have it at all. Why deprive the Filipinos of a chance to know more about our national hero? Even if you say that they can study this on their own, how would they know if no one ever tells them about this? Please think before you make any rash decisions about this subject. I know that you will make the right one.

RIZAL: Reformist or Revolutionary?

Filed under: Kaspil1, Module4 — Tags: , , , — kaspil1 @ 12:17 pm

This is one of the questions that comes into mind when Rizal’s name is mentioned. Was Rizal a reformist? Or revolutionary? Why did he condemn the revolution that was to be waged by the Bonifacio-led Katipunan?

Jose Rizal, our national hero, was one of the Filipinos who asked for reforms. These reforms will grant the ultimate dream of the reformists; assimilation. Filipinos will be given the rights that they deserve. Rizal choose to seek for reforms than to start a revolution because he knew that Philippines was not yet ready to stand on its own (during his time). Rizal used his liberal ideas in asking for reforms.

Rizal denied the existence of the 1896 Revolution because he didn’t want his conscience to be marred by the blood of his countrymen who will inevitably suffer because of their unpreparedness for a full-scale revolution. Moreover, he believed that this will not make the Philippines a better country. The Philippine Revolution freed the Filipinos from the hands of the Spaniards. Although Rizal had revolutionary ideas, he was not for armed revolution per se. He was more for the gradual and peaceful one. One that is catalyzed by the education of the people.

He reasoned out that when subject people are educated, intelligent, and have become aware of their human rights, they would have self-determination and they would strive to be free from their mother country. When this revolution happens, drastic changes will occur in the political, economical, social, religious, and intelligence sphere of a society paving the way for its independence someday.

Even though Rizal did not actually support the revolution, he we can say that he also contributed in this revolution. His works and writings were the corner stone of the revolution and he was indeed an inspiration for the Katipuneros during those times. Rizal’s life was devoted to his country (Philippines). His works and writings were evidence for his noble act as a reformist.

- Terry Lim

The Life of a National Hero

Filed under: Kaspil1, Module4 — Tags: , , , , — kaspil1 @ 12:14 pm

JOSE RIZAL, the national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan race, was born on June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11 children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families.

The Mercado – Rizal Family
The Rizals is considered one of the biggest families during their time. Domingo Lam-co, the family’s paternal ascendant was a full-blooded Chinese who came to the Philippines from Amoy, China in the closing years of the 17th century and married a Chinese half-breed by the name of Ines de la Rosa.

Jose Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents, Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso Realonda, and nine sisters and one brother.

FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898)
Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Born in Biñan, Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila.

TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913)
Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. She was a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and well-read. She was born in Santa Cruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila.

SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913)
Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas.

PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930)
Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution.

NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939)
The third child. married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a teacher and musician.

OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887)
The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from childbirth.

LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919)
The fifth child. Married Matriano Herbosa.

MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945)
The sixth child. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan, Laguna.

JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896)
The second son and the seventh child. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30,1896.

CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865)
The eight child. Died at the age of three.

JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945)
The ninth child. An epileptic, died a spinster.

TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951)
The tenth child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die.

SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929)
The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero.

Rizal’s Timeline

1848, June 28 — Rizal’s parents married in Kalamba, La Laguna: Francisco Rizal-Mercado y Alejandra (born in Biñan, April 18, 1818) and Teodora Morales Alonso-Realonda y Quintos (born in Sta. Cruz, Manila, Nov. 14, 1827).

1861, June 19 — Rizal born, their seventh child.

1861, June 22 — Christened as José Protasio Rizal-Mercado y Alonso-Realonda

1870, age 9 — In school at Biñan under Master Justiniano Aquin Cruz.

1871, age 10 — In Kalamba public school under Master Lucas Padua.

1872, June 10, age 11 — Examined in San Juan de Letran college, Manila, which, during the Spanish time, as part of Sto. Tomás University, controlled entrance to all higher institutions.

1872, June 26 — Entered the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, then a public school, as a day scholar.

1875, June 14, age 14 — Became a boarder in the Ateneo.

1876, March 23, age 15 — Received the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree, with highest honors, from Ateneo de Manila.

1876, June. — Entered Sto. Tomás University in the Philosophy course.

1877, June, age 16. — Matriculated in the medical course. Won Liceo Artistico-Literario prize, in poetical competition for “Indians and Mestizos”, with the poem “To the Philippine Youth”.

1877, Nov. 29 — Awarded diploma of honorable mention and merit by the Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country, Amigos del País, for the prize poem.

1880, April 23, age 19. — Received Licco Artístico-Literario diploma of honorable mention for the allegory, “The Council of the Gods”, in competition open to “Spaniards, mestizos and Indians”. Unjustly deprived of the first prize.

1880, Dec. 8. — Operetta “On the Banks of the Pasig” produced.

1881, age 20. — Submitted winning wax model design for commemorative medal for the Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country centennial.
Wounded in the back for not saluting a Guardia Civil lieutenant whom he had not seen. The authorities ignored his complaint.

1882, May 3, age 21. — Secretly left Manila with the passport of a cousin, taking at Singapore a French mail steamer for Marseilles and entering Spain at Port Bou by railroad. His brother, Paciano Mercado, furnished the money.

1882, June. — Absence noted at Sto. Tomás University, which owned the Kalamba estate. Rizal’s father was compelled to prove that he had no knowledge of his son’s plan in order to hold the land on which he was the University’s tenant.

1882, June 15. — Arrived in Barcelona.

1882, Nov. 3. — Began studies in Madrid.

1885, June 19, age 24. –Received degree of Licentiate in Medicine with honors from Central University of Madrid.
Clinical assistant to Dr. L. de Weckert, a Paris oculist.
Visited Universities of Heidelberg, Leipzig, and Berlin.

1887, Feb. 21, age 26. — Finished the novel Noli Me Tangere in Berlin.
Traveled in Austria, Switzerland and Italy.

1887, July 3. — Sailed from Marseilles.

1887, Aug. 5. — Arrived in Manila. Traveled in nearby provinces with a Spanish lieutenant, detailed by the Governor-General, as escort.

1888, Feb. — Sailed for Japan via Hong Kong.

1888, Feb. 28 to April 13, age 27. — A guest at the Spanish Legation, Tokyo, and traveling in Japan.

1888, April-May. — Traveling in the United States.

1888, May 24. — In London, studying in the British Museum to edit Morga’s 1609 Philippine History.

1889, March, age 28. — In Paris, publishing Morga’s History. Published “The Philippines A Century Hence” in La Solidaridad, a Filipino fortnightly review, first of Barcelona and later of Madrid.

1890, February to July, age 29. — In Belgium and Holland, finishing El Filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed), which is the sequel to Noli Me Tangere.
Published “The Indolence of the Filipino” in La Solidaridad.

1890, August 4. — Returned to Madrid to confer with his countrymen on the Philippine situation, then constantly growing worse.

1891, January 27. — Left Madrid for France.

1891, November, age 30. — Arranging for a Filipino agricultural colony in British North Borneo.
Practiced medicine in Hong Kong.

1892, June 26, age 31. — Returned to Manila under Governor-General Despujol’s safe conduct pass.
Organized a mutual aid economic society: La Liga Filipina.

1892, July 6. — Ordered deported to Dapitan, but the decree and charges were kept secret from him.
Taught school and conducted a hospital during his exile, patients coming from China coast ports for treatment. Fees thus earned were used to beautify the town. Arranged a water system and had the plaza lighted.

1896, August 1, age 35. — Left Dapitan en route to Spain as a volunteer surgeon for the Cuban yellow fever hospitals. Carried letters of recommendation from Governor-General Blanco.

1896, August 7 to September 3. — On Spanish cruiser Castilla in Manila Bay.
Sailed for Spain on Spanish mail steamer and just after leaving Port Said was confined to his cabin as a prisoner on cabled order from Manila. (Rizal’s enemies to secure the appointment of a governor-general subservient to them, the servile Polavieja had purchased Governor-General Blanco’s promotion.)

1896, October 5. — Placed in Montjuich Castle dungeon on his arrival in Barcelona and the same day re-embarked for Manila. Friends and countrymen in London by cable made an unsuccessful effort for a Habeas Corpus writ at Singapore. On arrival in Manila was placed in Fort Santiago dungeon.

1890, December 3. — Charged with treason, sedition and forming illegal societies, the prosecution arguing that he was responsible for the deeds of those who read his writings.

1896, December 12. — Wrote the poem “My Last Farewell” (later concealed in an alcohol cooking lamp) after appearing in a courtroom where the judges made no effort to check those who cried out for his death.

1896, December 15. — Wrote an address to insurgent Filipinos to lay down their arms because their insurrection was at that time hopeless. Address not made public but added to the charges against him.

1896, December 26. — Formally condemned to death by a Spanish court martial.
Pi y Margall, who had been president of the Spanish Republic, pleaded with the Prime Minister for Rizal’s life, but the Queen Regent could not forgive his having referred in one of his writings to the murder by, and suicide of, her relative, Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria.

1896, December 30, age 35 years, 6 months, 11 days. — Married in Fort Santiago death cell to Josephine Bracken, Irish, the adopted daughter of a blind American who came to Dapitan from Hong Kong for treatment.
Shot on the Luneta, Manila, at 7:03 a.m., and buried in a secret grave in Paco Cemetery. (Entry of his death was made in the Paco Church Register among suicides.)

1887, January. — Commemorated by Spanish Free-masons who dedicated a tablet to his memory, in their Grand Lodge hall in Madrid, as a martyr to Liberty.

1898, August. — Filipinos who placed over it in Paco cemetery, a cross inscribed simply “December 30,

1896”, sought his grave, immediately after the American capture of Manila. Since his death his countrymen had never spoken his name, but all references had been to “The Dead”.

1898, December 20. — President Aguinaldo, of the Philippine Revolutionary Government, proclaimed December 30th as a day of national mourning.

1898, December 30. — Filipinos held Memorial services at which time American soldiers on duty carried their arms reversed.

1911, June 19. — Birth semi-centennial observed in all public schools by an act of the Philippine Legislature.

1912, December 30. — Rizal’s ashes transferred to the Rizal Mausoleum on the Luneta with impressive public ceremonies.

Rizal’s First Trip Abroad 3 May 1882

Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista.

4 May 1882 He got seasick on board the boat.

5 May1882 He conversed with the passengers of the ship; he was still feeling sea-sick.

6 May 1882 He played chess with the passengers on board.

8 May 1882 He saw mountains and Islands.

9 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Singapore.

10 May 1882 He went around the town of Singapore and maid some observations.

11 May 1882 In Singapore, at 2 p.m., Rizal boarded the boat Djemnah to continue his trip to Spain. He found the boat clean and well kept.

12 May 1882 He had a conversation with the passengers of the boat.

13 May 1882 Rizal was seasick again.

14 May 1882 On his way to Marseilles, Rizal had a terrible dream. He dreamed he was traveling with Neneng (Saturnina) and their path was blocked by snakes.

May 15 1882 Rizal had another disheartening dream. He dreamed he returned to Calamba and after meeting his parents who did not talk to him because of not having consulted them about his first trip abroad, he returned traveling abroad with one hundred pesos he again borrowed. He was so sad and broken hearted. Soon he woke up and found himself inside his cabin.

17 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Punta de Gales.

18 May 1882 At 7:30 a.m., he left Punta de Gales for Colombo. In the afternoon, Rizal arrived at Colombo and in the evening the trip was resumed.

26 May 1882 Rizal was nearing the African coast

27 May 1882 He landed at Aden at about 8:30 a.m. He made observation at the time.

2 June 1882 He arrived at the Suez Canal en route to Marseilles.

3 June 1882 He was quarantined on board the Djemnah in the Suez Canal.

6 June 1882 It was the fourth day at Suez Canal and was still quarantined on board of the boat.

7 June 1882 Rizal arrived at Port Said. In a letter to his parents, He described his trip en route to Aden along the Suez Canal.

11 June 1882 Rizal disembarked and, accompanied by a guide, went around the City of Naples for one hour. This was the first European ground he set foot on.

12 June 1882 At ten o’clock in the evening, the boat anchored at Marseilles. He sleptn board.

13 June 1882 Early on the morning he landed at Marseilles and boarded at the Noalles Hotel. Later he around for observation.

14 June 1882 His second in Marseilles.

15 June 1882 He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train.

Rizal’s Love life
There were at least nine women linked with Rizal; namely Segunda Katigbak, Leonor Valenzuela, Leonor Rivera, Consuelo Ortiga, O-Sei San, Gertrude Beckette, Nelly Boustead, Suzanne Jacoby and Josephine Bracken. These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence, charm and wit.
Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela
Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love. Unfortunately, his first love was engaged to be married to a town mate- Manuel Luz. After his admiration for a short girl in the person of Segunda, then came Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl from Pagsanjan. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink, that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. He visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye.

Leonor Rivera
Leonor Rivera, his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in keeping him from falling in love with other women during his travel. Unfortunately, Leonor’s mother disapproved of her daughter’s relationship with Rizal, who was then a known filibustero. She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart. Leonor believing that Rizal had already forgotten her, sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping, her mother’s choice.

Consuelo Ortiga
Consuelo Ortiga y Rey, the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga’s daughters, fell in love with him. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. y R., which became one of his best poems. The Ortiga’s residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance, because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendship with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo.

O Sei San
O Sei San, a Japanese samurai’s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known as su-mie. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language. If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission, he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job.

Gertrude Beckett
While Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, he boarded in the house of the Beckett family, within walking distance of the British Museum. Gertrude, a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters. She fell in love with Rizal. Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. But Rizal suddenly left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude, who was seriously in love with him. Before leaving London, he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. He gave the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship.

Nellie Boustead
Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera, entertained the thought of courting other ladies. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city of Biarritz, he had befriended the two pretty daughters of his host, Eduardo Boustead. Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. Antonio Luna, Juan’s brother and also a frequent visitor of the Bousteads, courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal. In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid, a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. Fortunately, Luna apologized to Rizal, thus averting tragedy for the compatriots.
Their love affair unfortunately did not end in marriage. It failed because Rizal refused to be converted to the Protestant faith, as Nellie demanded and Nellie’s mother did not like a physician without enough paying clientele to be a son-in-law. The lovers, however, parted as good friends when Rizal left Europe.

Suzanne Jacoby
In 1890, Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris. In Brussels, he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters. In time, they fell deeply in love with each other. Suzanne cried when Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid.

Josephine Bracken
In the last days of February 1895, while still in Dapitan, Rizal met an 18-year old petite Irish girl, with bold blue eyes, brown hair and a happy disposition. She was Josephine Bracken, the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong, who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye treatment. Rizal was physically attracted to her. His loneliness and boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to fall in love again. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to Rizal’s security.
Rizal asked Josephine to marry him, but she was not yet ready to make a decision due to her responsibility to the blind Taufer. Since Taufer’s blindness was untreatable, he left for Hon Kong on March 1895. Josephine stayed with Rizal’s family in Manila. Upon her return to Dapitan, Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their marriage. However, the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition before marrying them. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and with Josephine’s consent took her as his wife even without the Church blessings. Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby, a result of some incidence, which might have shocked or frightened her.

- Terry Lim

Colonial Policies

Filed under: Kaspil1, Module3 — Tags: , , , — kaspil1 @ 12:06 pm

I. What is colonial policies?
a. Definition of term
b. Kinds of Colonial Policies
c. Objectives of Colonial Policies
II. Reasons why Filipinos were not able to remove Colonial Policies
III. Different Revolts against Colonial Policies
a. Sumuroy Revolt
b. Maniago Revolt
c. Agrarian Revolts
d. Silang Revolt
e. Palaris Revolt
f. Basi Revolt
IV. The Execution of Gomburza
a. Reasons
b. Effects
V. Birth of Nationalism

I. Colonial Policies
a. Definition
– Colonial Policies are the rules implemented by the Spaniards in the Philippines in order to prevent and destroy the unity among Filipinos

b. Kinds of Colonial Policies
1. Monopoly – controlling the goods and resources of Filipinos
2. Exploitation – gathering of products which are produced by Filipinos
3.. Land grabbing – used by friars in order to make the Filipinos pay
a required amount(quota) before the next harvest. If not paid, the debt will be added to the nest harvest until the quota is reached.
4. Polo y servicio – forced labor

c. Objectives of Colonial Policies
– To prevent and destroy the unity among Filipinos
– To be able to centralized and exploit goods and resources
– To abuse Filipinos
– To gain power and at the same time, money

II. Reasons why there is no unity among Filipinos to fight Colonial Policies
– Filipinos only care about their own provinces
– They tend to save their problems on their own interests
– There is still no sense of nationalism among Filipinos

III. Different Revolts against Colonial Policies
a. Sumuroy Revolt (1649-1650)
Sumuroy Revolt was lead by a Waray in Eastern Visiyas known as Juan Ponce Sumuroy. The rebellion originally started at Palapag (present name is Northern Samar) but dramatically spread to the Region. The main reason for the Sumuroy rebellion was the Spaniards’ forced recruiting of workers from Eastern Visayas and other neighboring regions to work in the Cavite shipyards. Even this rebellion is popular, it was still suppressed by the Spaniards.

b. Maniago Revolt (1660-1661)
Maniago Revolt was lead by Don Francisco Maniago. Polo and bandala are the main reasons why Maniago Rebellion was founded. The rebels, even though struggling for the freedom of Filipino natives, were weakened by Gov. de Lara and his cooperation with the Arayat chief Macapagal.

c. Agrarian Revolt (1745-1746)
Agrarian revolt was composed of different regions fighting together namely Batangas, Laguna, Cavite and Bulacan. These regions are called before as Calabarzon. This rebellion started in two towns of Batangas namely Lian and Nasugbu. The main reason for the Agrarian Revolt was the too much abuse of friars in land grabbing. The rebels demanded that the friars should return their lands on the basis of ancestral domain. Despit being popular, this revolt was destroyed by the Spaniards.

d. Silang Revolt (1762-1763;1763-1764)
The Silang revolt is one of the most famous revolts in Philippine History led by the couple Diego and Gabriela Silang. Unlike the other revolts, this revolt took place during the British Invasion of Manila. Diego Silang declared independence of Ilocandia, naming it “Free Ilocos” and proclaimed Vigan as the capital of the newly-independent state. After hearing about the declaration, the British asked for the help of Diego Silang in fighting the Spanish. However, Diego Silang was killed by his own friend, Miguel Vicos, who was been paid by the Spaniards. Resulting from the death of Diego, his wife, Gabriela, carried and continued the rebellion in her own arms. Because of the many victories she had, she was given the title “Joan of Arc of the Ilocos”. The battles of Silang is an example of divide et impera because the Spaniards used other Filipinos to fight the rebels. The revolt ended when the Ilocos lost and Gabriela was captured. She was executed in Vigan by Spanish authorities on September 10, 1763.

e. Palaris Revolt (1762-1765)
Palaris revolt, which started in Pangasinan, was lead by Juan de la Cruz Palaris of Binalatongan (now known as San Carlos City). The revolt started because of the failure of the Spanish government to satisfy the petition of the people namely, 1.) the return of tributes that had been collected, 2.) the removal of schoolmasters and the church officials, 3.) removal of the alkalde mayor of the provine, Don Joaquin Gamboa, 4.) permanence in office for the master-of-camp the province, Andres Lopez who is a native, and 5.) a promise that they be exempted from the payment of the tributes if they go to Jolo to fight the Moros. Even though famous and lasted for 2 years, Palaris was defeated and his body was mutilated and was paraded along the principal streets of Pangasinan with a accompany band.

f. Basi Revolt (1807)
Basi Revolt occurred in Pidding, Ilocos Norte. The rebellion was founded when the Spanairads banned the selling and drinking of Basi, a drink from Ilocos Norte. The revolt was unsuccessful and was suppressed by the Spaniards.

IV. The Execution of Gomburza
a. Reason
– The main reason for the execution of the Priests, Father Gomez, Father Burgos and Father Zamora, is that they are suspected in plotting and creating movements against the Spanish church. They are also suspected of supervising a mutiny in Cavite.

b. Effects
– The execution of Gomburza awakened the Nationalism Filipinos.
– Filipinos Filipinos begun to work together and unify with one another in order to achieve freedom and for their country.
– It gave birth to Nationalism

V. The Birth of Nationalism
Nationalism is also called as National consciousness. It was born on 1872 after the execution of the Gomburza. The Gomburza was considered as the turning point of of history for the Filipinos. Self-interest and patriotism was set aside and Filipinos begun to unify and cooperate with one another.

- James Marcos

August 25, 2008

Pilipino: Sibilisado???

Sa simula ng KASPIL1, maraming tinanong si Sir. Arleigh sa mga napag-aralan namin tungkol sa Pilipinas noong grade school at high school. Ang mga sagot namin pare-pareho. Pero iyon pala mali ung mga alam namin. Matagal na pala na-debunk ang mga teorya na naituro samin noong grade school at high school. Isa na dito ang walang kamatayang wave of migration theory, halos lahat ng tanungin mo ngayon na mga bata o matanda kung sino ang unang tao sa Pililinas, isa lang ang sagot na maririnig mo, ang mga Negrito. Nakakalungkot isipin na matagal na pala itong na-debunk ngunit hindi pa rin alam ng mga guro sa eskuwelahan. Ngayong kolehiyo ko lamang nalaman, samantalang hindi pa ako naipapanganak ay na-debunk na ito. Patunay lamang na mahalaga ang pag-aaral ng kasaysayang ng Pilipinas maging sa kolehiyo upang malaman ang pinakabagong mga datos ukol sa ating nakaraan, dahil kakaunti pa lang naman ang nalalaman natin tungkol dito.

Sibilisado ang mga sinaunang Pilipino, hindi tulad ng mga ipinahihiwatig ng mga Espanyol. Mayroon tayong sariling klase ng gobyerno, pagsusulat, relihiyon atbp. Maganda rin ang pag-uugali ng mga Pilipino dahil ayon nga sa mga Intsik ay tapat tayong mga manganalakal. Ang isa pa ay hindi barbariko ang patrato natin sa mga nagkakasala. Napakalinis din sa katawan ng mga sinaunang Pilipino, palagi sila naliligo at maging sa kanilang kapaligiran. Dahil nga naniniwala sila sa animismo, mabait sila sa kalikasan upang maging mabait din ito sa kanila.

Marami akong natuklasan na bago tungkol sa ating mga Pilipino. Para bang narerediscover kong muli ang ating kasaysayan. Naniniwala ako na kahit sinasaing bata pa at bago ang ating kultura ay hindi mo maikakaila na ito ay mayaman, at makulay. Ang ating kasaysayan bago pa man tayo nasakop ng mga Kastila, Amerikano at Hapon ay sibilisado na. Patunay lamang na kahit hindi nila tayo nadiskubre, tayo ay uunlad ng mag-isa. O baka nga mas mabilis tayong umunlad kung hindi nila tayo sinakop. Naniniwala ako na ang ating kultura ang sumasalamin sa atin bilang mga Pilipino. Dahil sa mga nalaman ko ukol sa ating kasaysayan at kultura, mas naging proud ako sa ating lahi. Ang pagkuha sa kursong ito ay nakatulong sa akin upang malinawan sa mga bagay na hindi nabigyang pansin sa aking mga dating pag-aaral.

- Mhika Lumayag

Pingmulan ng Pilipino

Pilipinas

Ang Pilipinas ay isang arkipelagong bansa na binubuo ng 7,107 na isla.

Panahong Prehistorikal

Ang Pilipinas ay nagsimula mabuo 3,000,000 taon na ang nakararaan, dahil sa diastropismo,volcanic activity, at erosion.

Mga unang tao sa Pilipinas:

1.Tabon Man ( 24,000-22,000 BCE)
– ito ay natagpuan sa Tabon Cave sa Palawan ni Dr. Robert Fox taong 1962-1966.
2. Cagayan Man ( nabuhay diumano ng mga 750,000 BCE)
– wala pang direktang ebidensya ang nakalap pero may mga natagpuan na
stone tools, at fossil fragments ng mga hayop na nabuhay sa panahon na iyon.

Austronesian Theory
Ayon sa teoryang ito, nagmula daw ang mga Pilipino sa mga Austronesian. Mayroong 2 teorya ukol sa mga Austronesians.

1. Island Origin Theory
– Willhelm Solheim II
-Austronesian- language family
-ayon dito ang mga Austronesians daw ay galing sa Southeast Aia
-sila daw ay mga mangingisda
-ang kanilang pinanggalingan ay East Indonesia at Southern Philippines

2. Mainland Origin
-Peter Bellwood
-galing daw sa Mainland China ang mga ito tapos pumunta ng Northern Vietnam, tapos sa Taiwan, sumunod sa Pilipinas
-sila daw ang nagdala dito ng mga kagamitan na ginamit noong Neolithic Age

Mga kontrobersiya ukol sa pinagmulan ng mga Pilipino:

Wave of Migration Theory
Ayon sa teoryang ito na ginawa ni Henry Beyer, nagkaroon daw ng malakihang pagdating ng mga tao dito sa Pilipinas. Nakarating daw sila dito gamit ang lupang tulay o kaya naman ay naglayag sa tubig. Mayroon daw sariling katangiang pisikal at cultural ang bawat grupo.

Ang mga grupo ng tao na kasama sa Wave of Migration theory:

1. Primitive Man o katulad ng Java Man at Peking Man
2. Negritos
3. Indonesian A
4. Indonesian B
5. Mga tao mula sa Central Asia
6. Malay ( sa kanila daw nanggaling ang lahing Pilipino, maging ang ating kultura)

a. ang mga Negrito ang mga unang taong dumating dito sa Pilipinas

Na-debunk na ang teoryang ito ni Beyer dahil sa mga sumusunod na mga dahilan/argumento:

1. No bones or physical evidence to prove the theory.
2. Assuming there were bones found, hoe did Beyer connect the skeletal remains with the physical and cultural traits of the people? No data to support claim.
3. Bones will not show the physical characteristics of the people except height and sex. It is impossible to connect physical much more cultural traits to merely bone remains. Anthropometry cannot determine genetic traits.
4. Local developments were ignored and the creativity of the people was not appreciated.
5. Why attribute all the cultural traits to the immigrants?
6. Why are all the cultural knowledge of the Filipinos derived from external influences?
7. Cultural traits came from the response and the local adaptation of the people from the environment and not from external influences.
8. Why attribute physical traits to cultural traits?
9. How did the immigrants came to the Philippines in terms of waves? How did they know
their destination?
10. How were they able to establish a community knowing that they were all new to the area and the local environment? Were they not affected by the perils of the new environment?
11. Beyer is arguing that all our cultural traits came from the immigrants. Were our ancestors unable to make their own cultural traits?
12. Cultural traits are the products of our ancestor’s adaptation and response to the environment and local conditions.

b. sa Malay galing ang lahi at kulturang Pilipino

1. Fossil remains cannot show the skin color of a person.
2. Bones will not show the physical characteristics of the people except height and sex. It is impossible to connect physical much more cultural traits to merely bone remains. Anthropometry cannot determine genetic traits.
3. Bones cannot show the physical traits and cultural traits.
4. Malays are different from the Filipinos.
5. There can be similarities but the similarities are due to the same environment that both Filipinos and Malays were subjected into (ex. Tropical climate, plant resources) but the differences will come from their responses to these conditions.
6. The Tabon fossil cannot show that we came from the Malays.

Panahong Prekolonyal

Gobyerno

Ang mga sinaunang Pilipino ay mayroon ng sariling sistema ng gobyerno bago pa man dumating sila Ferdinand Magellan. Ito ay tinatawag na barangay., ito ay pinamumunuan ng isang Datu. Ang namununo sa mga datu ay ang Raha.Mayroon ding mga sultanato dahil sa impluwensya ng relihiyong Islam. Ang Sultanato ay pinamumunuan ng isang Sultan. Walang namumuno sa buong arkipelago kundi sa mga barangay lamang at sultanato.

Relihiyon

Ang relihiyon ng mga sinaunang Pilipino ay Animismo, ang pagsamba sa mga espiritu ng kalikasan para sa magandang buhay. Dumating din ang relihiyong Islam sa arkipelago dala ng mga mangangalakal at misyonaryong galing sa Malaysia at Indonesia. Ito ay nagsimula sa Sulu at kumalat sa iba pang parte ng Mindanao.

Economics

Maaga pa lamang ay nakikipagkalakalan na ang mga sinaunang Pilipino sa mga Intsik, Hapon,Muslim at iba pang mga bansa sa Asya.

Mga ebidensya ng pakikipagkalakalan sa mga Intsik:

1.Chau Ju Kua- Chu Fan Chih- Records of Various Barbarian Nations
-1225 CE Sung Dynasty
Mga kinakalakal ng mga Intsik – porcelain, trade gold, iron pots, black lead, glass beads, iron needles.
Mga kinakalakal ng mga Pilipino – beeswax, cotton, pearl,tortoise shell, bird’s nest, betel nut.

2.Tao-I-Chi-Lioh-Summary Notices of the Barbarians of the Isles-
-1349 CE- Yuan Dynasty
– trade in Manila, Mindanao,Sulu,Visayas.

3.Trade in Butuan- base sa Sung Shih – History of the Sung or the Sung Annals
-960-1275 CE
-wooden boats, Tang porcelain

• Ang mga Pilipino daw ay mga tapat na mangamgalakal ayon sa mga Intsik.

Social Classes

Datu – mga namumuno
Maharlika – mga mayayaman o may kapangyarihan at impluwensya
Timawa – mga karaniwang tao
Aliping Namamahay – mga alipin na may sariling bahay
Aliping Saguiguilid – mga alipin na walang sariling bahay
Edukasyon

Mayroong sariling sistema ng pagsusulat ang mga sinaunang Pilipino. Ito ay tinatawag na baybayin o alibata.

Ang baybayin>>>

Mga kontrobersya sa prekolonyal na panahon:

1. Kalantiao Code
– ginawa daw ni Raha Kalantiaw
-original was in the possession of Don Marcelo Orfila in1839
– (1912-1939) Jose E. Marco from Pontevedra, Occidental Negros sold the text to Alexander Robertson who published an english translation.
– made up of 36 offenses offenses, 18, theses, 15 punishments without relation to the nature or severity of the crime
Halimbawa: I. “ Ye shall not kill; neither ye steal; neither shall ye do hurt the aged’ lest ye incur danger of death. All those who infringe this [ shall be condemned ] to death by being drowned with stones in the river or in boiling water…

Argumento laban sa Kalantiao Code:

1. Content is peculiar
2. Promulgated by a central authority of sufficient power to put chieftains to death if not enforced. Is this possible? Precolonial system is decentralized.
3. Hard to understand and apply
4. Contradictory
5. Very un-Filipino, very harsh, severe, sadist, and vicious. Filipinos usually punish in terms of fines and servitude.

Konklusyon:

Ang Kalantiaw Code ay hindi nag-exist bago mag 1914.

2. Maragtas Code at ang 10 Bornean Datu

-galing kay Pedro Monteclaro, nakuha daw niya ito sa kanyang Lolo
– kasaysayan ng ng mga unang nanirahan sa Panay galing sa Borneo
– nakalagay ang manuskripto sa kawayan

Mga nilalaman:

1.Marikudo – Datu of the Aetas in Panay – customs, clothes etc.
2. the arrival of the 10 Bornean Datu – escaped from Datu Makatunaw because of his cruelty
3. Panay was bought by the 10 Datus from Marikudo. They bought it for 1 golden salakot and a bain. Maniwantiwan, wife of Maikudo was given a necklace that was ankle length.
4. The Aeta Datu gave in return crabs, a boar, and a white deer.
5. The Datus were Puti, Sumakwel, Bangkaya, Paiburong, Padoninog, Dumangsol, Dumatogdog, Lubay, Balensuela, and Dumangsil.
6. Love story- Sumakwel, Kapinangan, Gurung-gurung
7. The journey of the Datus in Panay
8. The customs of the Borneans.

Mga argumento laban sa Maragtas Code:

1. Source- illegible; Monteclaro did not mention if the source was transcribed from the original document.
2. This is based on Panay folklore, custom and legend remembered or practiced by the people in Panay.
3. Based on folklore of the migration of Bornean settlers recorded in 1858. People from Panay consider them as folk heroes and Pagan deities.
4. A description of an idealized political confederation that never existed – Confederacy of Madias.
5. No information was given about the language and conditions of the original manuscript except that it was illegible.
6. No information about the author of the source.
7. No comment about the date of the manuscript except that it was 5 centuries old.
8. No written copy ever survived.
9. Conservative Filipino groups who use prehispanic scripts have no tradition of recording history or legal decisions.
10. No such term as Confederacy of Madias existed.

Konklusyon:

Mahirap malaman kung ito ba yay katotohanan o hindi. May mga pangyayari na base sa mga aktwal na pangyayari pero mahirap sabihin kung kailan ito nagyari o kung ito ay historikal.

1. Prinsesa Urduja
-isang prinsesa sa Pangasinan
-Ibn Batuta – isang manlalakbay na gumawa ng journal ng kanyang paglalakbay
-Prinsesa Urduja ng Tawalisi – isang Amasona, na napanalunan ang kanyang siyudad na Kailukari sa pamamagitan ng kanyang galing sa pakikipaglaban
-nakakapagsalita ng Turko, nakakapagsulat ng Arabo, hindi magpapakasal sa kahit kanino hanggat hindi saya natatalo nito sa labanan

Ang tanong ay: Nasan ang Tawalisi? Nasa Pangasinan, Celebes, Luzon, Sulu?

 mayroong isang babae na nagngangalan ding Urduja
 asawa siya ng isang Turkong Sultan
 Uzbeg-khan-Urduja ang pangalan niya
 nagsasalita din siya ng Turko
Konlusyon:

Si Urduja ay isa lamang alamat, walang pruweba ng kanyang existence.

- Mhika Lumayag

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